Week 6: Paying Attention

A lot of this week’s reading revolved around Attention, the economy of attention, shifting attention, losing attention and paying attention. But first what does it mean exactly when we refer to our attention?

The Oxford Dictionary says:


Pronunciation: /əˈtɛnʃ(ə)n/


[mass noun]

  1. notice taken of someone or something; the regarding of someone or something as interesting or important
  2. the action of dealing with or taking special care of someone or something

I think when we are talking about our attention in this context, it refers to the amount of time and focus that we have. As both are limited resources (We only have so much time in a day, we can only focus for so long) it would follow that attention is also a limited resource.

So what is happening to this limited resource in the face of a new media landscape where information is not only abundant, but in surplus?

The Economy of Attention deals with attention as a scarce resource that is sought after and ‘paid’ like a currency of the modern age. The domestication of the internet into our daily lives means that we can constantly access it throughout the day and that means being bombarded with information, adverts and updates. As our attention is limited, we can only pay attention to so many things through the day.

I suppose two fears that can result from this would be the fear that we aren’t paying attention to the right things, or that we aren’t paying enough attention to what we do see.

The first, that we aren’t paying attention to the right things, follows the thought that with all the entertainment and social media, we are choosing them over topics such as news and politics. The foreword of Amusing Ourselves to Death by Neil Postman goes into this, comparing Brave New World and 1984 to our current society. It compares modern day entertainment to the blissful ignorant ‘happiness’ that the inhabitants of Civilisation live with.

The second fear is in response to the depth of our attention now. With so many things to attend to, we often turn to multitasking to keep afloat the sea of information. This flitting about with our attention, our quickly changing of gears to attend to five things within a minute, has caused some, such as Nicholas Carr, to fear that our ability to deeply engage with media has been lost.

However this paves way to a thing called Infotention which is the collection of tools and skills that our minds are coming to have that help manage and pick out what is worth paying attention to and what isn’t. Humans are very adaptive, and I think this word accounts for the adaptive measures that we have taken to better traverse an information-saturated world.

Another take on the Economy of Attention is that Attention isn’t becoming more and more limited in a world full of information, but that attention is being freed up from previously attention-heavy tasks. It goes that the resulting consumption of media isn’t a matter of it ‘consuming’ our attention, but of our attention having greater freedom to attend to these things.

My stance on all of the above is that everything holds a portion of the truth. While yes, I agree that our time is being freed up by convenient technology (Typing instead of writing, industries catering to food and material goods) there is also this sense that media is so pervasive it is consuming what attention we have and turning it into a scarcity.

I often find myself feeling that I have no time to do something because my attention is caught up with all the media that I consume, and this isn’t even media that I would rate as ‘highly important’. I can waste my time away on Tumblr and YouTube  something which I’m sure many other can relate to their experiences with Facebook or Reddit.

There seems to be a want to keep the brain occupied, to see what is the next shiny update, what’s so and so said now. It’s what keeps me hitting f5 when I’ve been through all the new content and I’m waiting for more. Perhaps this is why procrastination seems easier than every before. The internet is already providing us with so many easy-to-access distractions, and with it’s pervasiveness through notifications and apps across a myriad of devices, it’s becoming hard to escape. This may be what has prompted people to go Tweet-free for a month or into a temporary digital hibernation while they work.

But while this weeks reading focused on the Economy of Attention in relation to media, I feel that it has always been a constant through history. The concept of Economy of Attention pops up in so many areas that are outside of the internet. It covers things like adverts on TV, competition between local stores, the brand names of a certain product and even primary school popularity contests. These all deal with the want to accumulate or gather as much attention as possible, in all these situations attention becomes a form of ‘currency’ for the people involved. Perhaps this is a sign of a capitalist society, or perhaps this is the sign of a society full of social beings. The Economy of Attention is certainly A Thing affecting our media engagement, but then again it has always been A Thing throughout our lives and the workings of our society.

I think that Infotention allows us to manage our attention in the face of  the busy media landscape. Though I don’t think infotention is a matter of ‘allows us’ or not, infotention has become a vital skill that we need to get things done. We certainly are picking up new tools that become not only better ways of processing information, but also shortcuts to access them so that we do not spend too much time finding it. We have learned to multi-task more throughout the day, and some attest to the usefulness and productivity that follows. With the internet we now have greater access to materials, and tools to search through these materials. Google is one example, and the library of UNSW is another.

However it’s not all good news, I do feel like that our attention spans are becoming shorter in some aspects. I don’t think it would limit our ability to engage deeply with things, but our shorter attention span certainly shows in the smaller things, and these small things can build into something bigger.

The newfound ease to do things that technology provides is not only speeding things up,  but also training us to expect things in under a second. Download speeds need to be faster, computer bootups, game loading times and video buffers all need to be reduced. We’re so used to the speed of the internet that waiting ten seconds for a website to load is met with impatience and frustration. Up that to half a minute and it’d be only the most stubborn of users who see it load, or maybe they just have it in another tab with their attention diverted away to something else.

The thing is we’re used to speed, so anything that could take a while would lead to frustration. I think we certainly have lost patience in some aspects but that’s not to say we’ve lost our ability to concentrate. There are lots of techniques and tips that people share to boost productivity. Lifehacker contains quite a few, and I’m sure you can recall a peer sharing a tip or two on how to get rid of distractions and work. I feel that these tips and guides can also fall under the umbrella of infotention, as it also deals with our management of attention and narrowing it down to focus on something for an extended period of time. There are certainly more things to attend to but infotention, our new emerging skillset of managing our attention in relation to the world, help us in directing our attention to what need it most.


Week 5: Archives and our lives

Archives provide our society with a foundation upon which institutions, laws and structures stand. The law of precedents can be seen as one such archive that guides and can predict what kinds of sentences and verdicts will be passed down for a case.  Statistics are used within a variety of fields, from psychology to businesses and draw upon data gathered from archives to make predictions. Lessons are archived within history. Values are archived within documents such as constitutions, religious texts and stories. What society is today, and what it will be, is deeply rooted in the archives that we possess and create.

This line of thought leads me to remember George Orwell’s book 1984. A novel set in a society where the documents were altered and distributed so many times that one is not sure what the truth is anymore. For the archive also acts as memory that can be far more reliable than what a human brain recalls. The Ministry of Truth, which concerned itself with news publications, entertainment and education, alters things such as the rations of supplies and who they are currently warring with which in turn manipulate the feelings and sentiments of the public. It provides a very good example of the importance in keeping archives.

Of course 1984 is an extreme example that concerns a dystopian society, but that doesn’t make it less true that our society is heavily influenced by, if not entirely operating around, the archives that we keep and maintain.

We live in a world where almost everything is documented, and this is even truer with the prevalence of self-publishing websites such as Twitter and Facebook. Think of common everyday aspects of life. Banking, working and pay, newspapers, articles and administrative documents. These all affect society in how they choose to spend their money, what they value and how people live their lives. With technological advances, there are even more ways than before to archive every moment of our day. Some older examples would be surveillance cameras, credit card history and phone history but newer things would include blogging, tweets, flickr and instagram.

I think what Matthew Ogle has said in his blog entry rings very true. That “without deliberate planning, we have created amazing new tools for remembering.

In what ways does this new way of remembering impact us? For one, I think it changes how people can come to socialise. Whereas previously a stranger is a stranger and you don’t know anything about them, now you can google them or find them on facebook and have a look through their past activity. This is the same if you happen to chance upon someone on twitter or a blog, there’s a history of what that person has posted which becomes a sort of snapshot into what kind of person they are. We reveal much more information about our selves to strangers now without deliberately meaning to.

Perhaps this is a reason why privacy surrounding the net and the data shared across the net has become such an important topic. It’s become so simple for users to share information that if not handled correctly, users could be exploited. Not only do browsing habits and likes provide a wealth of information to commercial companies, there is also a lot of sensitive data that can be found online. Information like full names, addresses, emails and passwords. As the internet is being integrated more and more into our lives, the things that we do online can come to be associated with a lot of money and worth (For example, a library of games on steam, or access to a bank account) and for that information to fall into the wrong hands can be disastrous.

Word: Desire

Week 4: Assemblages and Archives

The archivization produces as much as it records the event.

What’s the first thing you think of when someone mentions archives? Old dusty libraries? Ancient tomes and books? Shelves upon shelves of old, long forgotten paperwork?

Well let’s take it a step further. Think of video rental stores. Credit card histories. What about internet histories? Your Facebook? This blog?

Everything I’ve mentioned can be interpreted as an archive. They all store information in a way that allows for retrieval of it later. We all know that archives can be kept to store and records information, so what does it mean for an archive to produce?

Let’s focus on the newer forms of self-publishing that are now available to us. I’m talking about things like Twitter, Facebook, Tumblr and of course, WordPress just to name a few.  These are all platforms that allow us to create archives of events and ideas, platforms and websites that allow us to create an archive without even meaning to.

For what purpose? And how does this archivization affect us?

First let us look at why people may create an account on such websites. Let’s take the examples of blogs. For what purposes do blogs exist? Why do people create and maintain a blog? Some are created revolving around a certain interest and aim to share techniques, document personal progress or to get involved in a certain community. Others could be a collection of thoughts, such as a personal journal, or reflective writing as this blog is. Maintenance of a blog could range anywhere from a constant stream of updates to ‘wait, I still have that?’.

For example, someone created a blog to upload their art onto is creating an archive of their work. Through this archive they document their improvements over time as well as spot flaws in their work. By documenting change (the progression of the art) the archive has also created change (in the creator). This archive would also create a showcase which they could share to the public as a gallery or as a portfolio. Viewers may be inspired and strive to improve their own skills or a potential client contacts the creator for work.

An archive is a documentation of the past, but also of possible actions in the present future. (cite) In the example of an art portfolio, it shows what work the creator has made already as well as the quality of work that they could make in future. Another example would be a business report. If there is a rise in sales around a certain time or event, the owner of the business could try to predict sales around the same time or re-create the event or circumstances to encourage sales to grow.

We can see that archives serve not only as a collection of the past but also as something that can create change.

Week 2: Repetition of history

One thing that I noticed while reading Eisenstein’s The Printing Press as an Agent of Change was that many of the phenomenons happening then from the distribution of print is being felt again in the age of the internet.

Eisenstein (1979) mentioned a ‘knowledge explosion’ resulting from the widespread distribution of knowledge. Similarily, we can find this happening again with the ever-expanding collection of online how-to’s and tutorials. One can find a whole range of tutorials on YouTube, the topics ranging from charging an ipod with an onion to creating a raised garden bed. Specialised sites have also popped up such as InstructablesAbout.com and wikiHow that cover a plethora of areas – just have a look for yourself.

One thing to note in all these examples are that all these tutorials are self-published by individuals. These websites have become a collection of knowledge that the community of its users have collaboratively created. This shows how easy it is and how many more outlets there are for publishing to the average person nowadays which is what allows websites like these to cover such such an extensive list of topics.

It was from such tutorials and articles that I had picked up how to crotchet. There were enough resources floating around on the internet that taught me how to start off with the basic stitches as well as step-by-step guides on how to do something more complex like broomstick lace or the crocodile stitch. With all this content available online and for free, what does it mean for the publishing companies and authors behind books that sell this information? Surely there’s been a drop in sales now that there’s an alternative source to get this information?

Despite information being given away online, instructional books are still being sold in book stores which means that there are still people buying these books. So then I ask, are we simply buying books for their content now? Or is there something more in a book that we cannot find online? Are we buying the book for it’s neat organisation of information compared to trawling the web and employing google fu to find what we want? Or is it more about the accuracy and perceived legitimacy of the information printed within a book?

This question of legitimacy brings me to the second similarity that I found between now and the past. Eisenstein(1979) mentions how the printing press also sped up the ‘corruption’ of a print and perhaps this can be likened to how information on the web is sometimes passed along much in a manner similar to a game of Chinese whispers. It is incredibly easy to lose the original source of something especially in an environment where information can spread so quickly and be up to interpretation of so many people. These interpretations then get interpreted by another person and so on and so forth.

Another thing to note is also how often important facts are omitted about an article to skew the opinion of the reader towards a certain side. One need that has arisen out of the ease of self-publication is that of fact-checking. Where a newspaper or book is typically guaranteed to have gone through several stages of quality checking, this isn’t the case for self-published materials and posts. Heck even this post isn’t guarded by any official forms of quality and fact checking beyond what I myself have done. This isn’t to say that the need for fact-checking was only recently created, but that more prudence need be exercised when it comes to the internet because of self-publication.

I also find that the internet is simultaneously a permanent record and constantly shifting. A person can claim one thing one day then another thing the next, but that they have claimed these two separate things may remain recorded. This can be summed up in a common sentiment that ‘Once it’s on the internet, it’s there forever’.

One recent example of this is the Applebees Facebook fiasco. The linked article itself is a demonstration of how something can remain on the internet forever. Screenshots and caches of webpages can be kept for an unknown period of time and can resurface. An example shown within the article is of a previous post that Applebees had made, but then deleted. Despite it no longer appearing on their wall anymore, the fact that they had posted it has been preserved and shared.

How has this changed accountability of a publisher? On one hand, the internet has made it difficult to keep track of who said what, but on the other hand some instances such as this are documented and kept forever.

In conclusion, we can see some key events repeating themselves in history in response to the printing press and the advent of the internet. Information and knowledge has become widespread through the use of a new tool that allows easier distribution of text (and other mediums) and this has resulted in a change in society’s gears. Similar to books, the internet has become a method of preserving things in some cases. However the internet also brings with it new changes in the dynamics between audience and publishers. With so much information out on the internet, why buy books? What do books offer that the internet doesn’t? One thing that’s for certain though is that things are changing.


Eisenstein, Elizabeth (1979) ‘Excerpts’ from ‘Defining the initial shift: some features of print culture’ in The Printing Press as an Agent of Change Vol. 1, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pg 72, 108

Word: Alphabet

Week 1: From books to e-readers and digitised information

This week’s reading started off with an introduction to Publishing and and overview of how the publishing industry worked.

We can see that the given model of the publishing industry works easily enough when dealing with printed text, and this has worked over hundreds of years. But what happens when we start introducing things which display and use text in a different manner? What happens when we start putting things such as smartphones, ipads and the internet into the picture?

Technology has brought us many new mediums and platforms with their own new features, pros and cons. I suppose what this course looks at then, is how the changing technology affects the structures within our society (such as the publishing industry) and how these affects then effect the way we, the public, live our daily lives.

The shift from print to digital media has meant a lot of changes for media industries and the public. We can see now that technology is intricately intertwined with our day to day activities. Newspapers are now available in online and digital formats, as well as being able to be updated much faster. People can keep in touch with friends through facebook, something that’s become so central to our social network that even the companies are jumping onto it as an advertising channel. More and more books are becoming available through online stores as ebooks, which cuts out the cost of production that physical copies of books have.

Books and text are no longer displayed the same way, with newer more interactive mediums being expected. There are websites such as Lifehacker, Wired and Cracked. Could these be counted as online magazines? Doubtless they are new platforms for publishing media with different rules and guidelines to physical magazines. With comment sections, they can get feedback real-time from their reader base and see how many hits a particular article has gotten.

Even now as I type this up in the editor, wordpress is suggesting links for me to include in this blog post. The reading experience has changed once we go online, and instead of one article or page ending at the last full stop, instead it acts as tree that can branch out into many more websites.

We’ve also changed the way that we are exposed to different media. There are a variety of RSS feed aggregators and websites that allow users to network and get a live ‘feed’ of anything that’s published from a source of interest. Some examples are the Google RSS Reader, Tumblr, Facebook and WordPress.

These websites not only provide us with a way to follow what other people publish, some of them allow people to become publishers themselves. This can change the dynamic between companies that publish articles, ordinary people and writers who aren’t represented by literary agents. It provides greater ease for people to voice their thoughts and works, and publishing companies are no longer a ‘gatekeeper’ of published text.